software Technology

How To Find Elements While Performing Playwright Testing

Starting an adventure through the kingdom of Playwright testing uncovers a world where accuracy meets mechanization. Exploring this domain requires mastering the skill of component recognition – a foundation examined throughout eight enlightening segments. The Playwright is a powerful open-supply automation library that lets developers write browser exams and carry out browser automation in numerous programming languages.

Commence by deciphering the complexities of DOM arrangement, paving the path for leveraging distinctive identifiers that secure your mechanization commands. Venture deeper into the dynamic realm, where locators adjust seamlessly to modifications. Discover the gracefulness of CSS selectors, then we have  Shadow DOM and attain proficiency in frames and iframes. Enhance your testing expertise with accessibility selectors, and employ the finesse of regular expressions. So, get ready to become a web wizard, using Playwright as your magical tool!

What is Playwright Testing?

Playwright stands as a potent browser automation and testing framework, tailored to empower developers in orchestrating intricate interactions with web pages while conducting exhaustive end-to-end testing procedures. Remarkably, it extends support to eminent browsers like Chromium (inclusive of Google Chrome), Firefox, and WebKit (the backbone of Safari). Playwright’s scripting capabilities encompass the replication of user actions—be it the emulation of clicks, form completions, or intricate page-to-page traversals—enabling meticulous scrutiny of web application comportment across diverse scenarios. A distinct attribute lies in its versatility, offering both headless execution (sans visible browser UI) and headful mode (with UI visibility) for streamlined debugging. Playwright’s prowess truly manifests in its transcending of browser boundaries, fostering congruent functionality validation across heterogeneous browser environments. Its architecture boasts swiftness and dependability, rendering it apt for protracted test suites. Parallel testing support further enhances efficiency.

Moreover, Playwright exhibits platform agnosticism, functioning seamlessly on Windows, macOS, and Linux platforms. The scripting facet revolves around languages like JavaScript, TypeScript, and Python, enmeshing with Playwright’s browser instances. While insights are current as of September 2021, the evolving tech panorama implies prospective refinements. For the latest strides, referring to official Playwright documentation and pertinent online resources is judicious.

Why Playwright is used to finding elements

A playwright is a potent tool for examining web applications. It backs an assortment of examining techniques, encompassing functional examining, end-to-end examining, API examining, and efficacy examining. Playwright furnishes several techniques for discovering and interacting with elements on a website. These techniques can be employed to automate a broad spectrum of tasks, like signing into an application, appending items to a shopping cart, and checking out. Playwright is also a decent choice for efficacy examination. It can be employed to gauge the application’s efficacy under distinct load conditions. If you are seeking a potent and versatile tool for examining web applications, Playwright is an excellent alternative. It is effortless to use, supports a variety of examining techniques, and is consistently being enhanced. Here are some illustrations of how Playwright can be employed to automate tasks: 

  1. element.$$(selector): Discovers all subordinate items within the current item that match the given choice.
  2. element.getAttribute(name): Retrieves the value of the specified property of the item.
  3. element.inputValue(): Fetch the value of an input item.
  4. element.fill(value):  Enters the given value into an input or text area item.
  5.  Imitates a mouse press on the item.
  6. element.hover(): Imitates holding the mouse over the item. 
  7. element.selectOption(values): Selects alternatives from a dropdown or multi-select item.
  8. page.evaluateHandle(pageFunction[, …args]): Executes a function within the setting of the page and returns a JSHandle representing the outcome.

Various Methods for finding elements

Understanding the DOM Structure:

When you initiate evaluating websites with Playwright, it’s essential to comprehend the Document Object Model (DOM) arrangement. The DOM is a blueprint of a web page that illustrates how all the distinct components on the page are interconnected to each other. This can be beneficial for evaluation because it allows you to traverse the page more conveniently and locate components using their distinct addresses. Consider the DOM arrangement as a map of a city. The same holds true for the DOM arrangement. If you grasp how the components on a page are interconnected, you can effortlessly navigate to them and interact with them. The DOM arrangement is also crucial for understanding how alterations to one part of a page can affect other parts. For instance, if you alter the text in a heading, the DOM arrangement will be updated to mirror the alteration. This implies that any evaluations that rely on the text in that heading will also need to be updated. By comprehending the DOM arrangement, you can compose more robust and dependable evaluations for your websites. You’ll be able to traverse the pages more conveniently, locate components more swiftly, and understand how alterations to one part of a page can affect others.

Utilizing Unique Identifiers:

When you’re examining websites with Playwright, it’s crucial to be able to recognize elements correctly. This is because you must be able to inform the Playwright which element you desire to interact with. Sole identifiers are the solution to precise element recognition. They’re distinctive features that make each element on a page one-of-a-kind. Some typical sole identifiers are IDs, Classes, etc.

IDs are the most solitary identifiers. They’re allocated to a solitary element on a page, and they never change.Classes can be shared by multiple elements on a page. This makes them less solitary than IDs, but they can still be helpful for identifying elements. 

There are numerous other features that can be used as sole identifiers. For instance, you could use the name feature to recognize a form field, or the ‘src’  feature to recognize an image. 

By utilizing sole identifiers, you can be certain that Playwright will always find the accurate element when you instruct it to. This is vital for composing dependable and sturdy tests. Here are some recommendations for utilizing sole identifiers:

Utilize the most solitary identifier possible. If you have a choice between utilizing an ID or a category, utilize the ID. Be consistent with your identifiers. If you use the same identifier for the same element in multiple tests, it will make your tests simpler to read and maintain. Utilize descriptive identifiers. Your identifiers should be significant so that you can effortlessly recollect what they signify.

By adhering to these recommendations, you can use sole identifiers to write more precise and dependable Playwright tests.

Employing dynamic locators:

In Playwright’s examination, active identifiers are vital for addressing internet page elements that lack constant identifiers. These identifiers adapt to altering attributes or structures, ensuring resilient examination writings. Utilizing techniques like ‘data-testid’ or XPath expressions, active identifiers enable writings to specify elements based on context, strengthening resilience against UI changes. This approach enhances the stability and longevity of examinations by decoupling them from specific element attributes, accommodating evolving internet interfaces effectively.

Using CSS Selectors effectively:

Accessibility selectors in Playwright testing give web accessibility evaluation by making elements with specific roles, states, or properties that help users with disabilities. Leveraging attributes like `aria-label` or `aria-labelledby`, these selectors identify elements important for screen readers and assistive technologies. By using `role` attributes or `:focus` states, Playwright can confirm interactive components’ behavior for keyboard navigation. This integration ensures submission with accessibility standards, enhancing inclusivity and user experience. Employing accessibility selectors underscores Playwright’s commitment to comprehensive testing that encompasses usability for all users, fostering a more accessible digital environment.

Dealing with Shadow DOM:

Handling Shadow DOM entails accessing enclosed elements within bespoke web components. Playwright offers the ‘.shadowRoot’ feature to breach the Shadow DOM boundary. By assessing the shadowRoot of a main element, you can engage with its internal elements using Playwright’s element selection techniques, enabling comprehensive testing and verification of web components’ actions and functionality.

Handling frames and iframes:

Dealing with frames and iframes is vital in web testing with Playwright. Frames and iframes are distinct HTML documents embedded within the primary page, frequently utilized for exhibiting outside content or modular components. Playwright enables you to reach these frames using the ‘page.frame()’ technique, empowering interactions with elements within them. By selecting a suitable frame using its name, URL, or other characteristics, you can successfully locate and manipulate elements within nested documents. This is indispensable for testing scenarios encompassing embedded content, like promotions, third-party gadgets, or modular segments, guaranteeing comprehensive testing coverage across multiple portions of a web page.

Accessibility Selectors:

Playwright upgrades web testing availability with Accessibility selectors. Capitalizing on ARIA attributes, you can discover components vital for users with impairments. By employing selectors like ‘page.locator(‘[aria-label=”Menu”]’)’, you guarantee your assessments account for components’ semantic functions, assisting verbalizers and assistive tools. Availability assessment becomes more precise, furnishing a thorough evaluation of your application’s user interface. These selectors reinforce broad design methodologies, guaranteeing your web application is functional and traversable by all, and Playwright’s assistance for availability locators streamlines this essential aspect of the assessment.

How to find elements while performing playwright testing

When performing Playwright testing, the procedure of finding and engaging with components on a webpage is crucial. This involves a methodical approach commencing with importing the Playwright library and launching a browser instance to establish a testing environment. Through Playwright’s diverse methods, like ‘page.$()’, ‘page.$()’, and ‘page.waitForSelector()’, evaluators can precisely recognize components based on selectors like IDs, classes, or attributes. Once components are found, interactions like taps, text input, and choices are facilitated using methods like ‘’, ‘element.fill()’, and more. Ensuring component attributes, visibility, and interactability are often vital in validation. Moreover, assessing JavaScript within the page context and managing frames, iframes, and even Shadow DOM contribute to comprehensive testing. The meticulous orchestration of these steps guarantees precise testing and amplifies web application dependability.


Beginning the thrilling journey of Playwright testing opens up a world where accuracy and automation effortlessly intertwine. As we navigate through this realm, our primary compass is the art of recognizing and engaging with webpage elements, a fundamental skill dissected across eight enlightening segments. Playwright emerges as a formidably, open-source automation library that empowers developers across various programming languages to script browser tests and smoothly automate web interactions. We commence our adventure by diving into the intricacies of DOM structure, laying the foundation for leveraging distinct identifiers that anchor our automation commands. Delving deeper, we explore the spontaneous side, where locators flexibly adapt to changes, ensuring our tests remain agile. The gracefulness of CSS selectors awaits our discovery, as does the captivating realm of Shadow DOM. 

Framing our expertise, we master the art of handling frames and iframes, each a window into different web-worlds. The journey wouldn’t be complete without delving into accessibility selectors, embracing regular expressions, and more. With this newfound toolkit, we embark on web sorcery, using Playwright as our enchanted guide. The essence of Playwright testing lies in its accuracy and adaptability, granting us the ability to effortlessly interact with webpage elements. Through considerate strategies, precise interactions, and vigilant validation, Playwright becomes our reliable companion, ensuring web applications shine with quality and resilience. In our pursuit of locating elements within Playwright testing, we unlock the power to mold user experiences, making the digital landscape a friendlier and more efficient place.

About the author

Torrance Mueller

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